Ramadan (رمضان‎): the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which lasts 29 or 30 days. It is the month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking and sexual intimacy during daylight hour. It is intended to teach Muslims about patience, spirituality, humility and submissiveness to God.

Iftar (إفطار‎): the evening meal when Muslims break their fast. Iftar is often done as a community, with people gathering to break their fast together. Traditionally, a date is the first thing to be consumed when the fast is broken.

Suhoor (سحور ): the meal consumed early in the morning by Muslims before fasting in daylight hours. The meal is eaten before dawn.Being the only meal eaten by Muslims from dawn to sunset, Suhoor typically tends to be heavy and is highly regarded by Islamic traditions to benefit of the blessings and avoid crankiness or weakness caused by the fast.

Peace be upon him (عليه السلام‎ ): is a phrase that practising Muslims often say after saying (or hearing) the name of one of the Prophets of Islam.

Qiyam/ Tahajjud (تهجد‎): the “night prayer.” It is not one of the five obligatory prayers required of all Muslims, yet Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is recorded as performing it regularly and encouraging his companions to offer it to God for its many rewards and benefits.

Salat al-Jummah ( صلاة الجمعة‎): a congregational prayer that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon. It is mentioned in the Qur’an as:

O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!

And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper.

— Qur’an: Chapter 62, verses 9-10

Salat (صلاة‎): the practice of formal prayer in Islam. Salat is a ritual prayer, having prescribed conditions, a prescribed procedure, and prescribed times.

Taraweeh (تراويح‎): a type of extra prayers performed by Sunni Muslims every night in Ramadan. They are not compulsory; however, many Muslims pray these prayers in the night during Ramadan. Muslims believe it is customary to attempt a “complete recitation” of the Qur’an in Ramadan by reciting at least 1/30th of the Qur’an per night in taraweeh.

Masjid (مسجد‎): literally, a place of prostration. Masjid is the Arabic term for mosque, a Muslim place of worship.

Fajr (صلاة الفجر): the first of the five daily prayers offered by Muslims. Fajr means dawn in the Arabic language.

Dhuhr (صلاة الظهر): the prayer after midday‎.

Asr (صلاة العصر‎): the afternoon daily prayer recited by Muslims. It is the third of the five daily prayers.

Maghrib (صلاة المغرب‎): the prayer offered just after sunset, is the fourth of five formal daily prayers (salat) performed by Muslims.

Isha (صلاة العشاء‎): the night-time daily prayer recited by Muslims. It is the fifth of the five daily prayers.

Imam (إمام): one who leads congregational Islamic worship and prayers.

Alhamdu lillah (الحمد لله): Arabic phrase meaning “Praise to God” or “All praise is due to Allah,” similar to the Hebrew phrase Halelu Yah (Hallelujah). In everyday speech it simply means “Thank God!” It is used by Arabic-speakers of all religions, but more frequently by Muslims due to the centrality of this specific phrase within the texts of the Qur’an and the words of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

Masha Allah (ما شاء الله): Arabic phrase that expresses appreciation, joy, praise or thankfulness for an event or person that was just mentioned. Towards this, it is used as an expression of respect, while at the same time serving as a reminder that all accomplishments are so achieved by the will of God. The literal English translation is “whatever God (Allah) wills,” the present perfect of God’s will. It is said upon hearing good news.

Laylat al-Qadr (لیلة القدر‎): The Night of Destiny, Night of Power, Night of Value, the Night of Decree or Night of Measures, is the anniversary of the night Muslims believe the first verses of the Qur’an were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

Eid al-Fitr (‎عيد الفطر): often abbreviated to Eid, is a three-day Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm). Eid is an Arabic word meaning “festivity,” while Fiṭr means “original nature,” implying the restoration of one’s best human composition.

(based upon Breakfast at Night‘s Glossary of Islamic Terms via Wikipedia)

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